Does Protein Increase Testosterone? (What New Research Says)

If you’ve been doing research about protein intake recently, you might be freaked out by headlines declaring that high-protein diets can decrease men’s testosterone levels.

They all refer to one study that concluded: “high-protein diets cause a large decrease in resting total testosterone.”

But what about all those years of bro science that showed jacked, muscle-bound dudes swigging protein shakes by the gallon? Doesn’t protein intake increase testosterone? 

In general, protein intake does not impact testosterone levels. Exceptions to this are extreme cases when protein intake is very low (<0.4g per pound of body weight) or when it is so high as a proportion of your total intake that it causes you to miss out on other macronutrients (especially carbs) in your diet.

Key Takeaways

  • When protein replaces carbs to create a very low-carb diet (<12% of calories from carbs), cortisol increases, and testosterone decreases.
  • A high-protein intake of up to 1.5 grams of protein per pound of body weight in an overall macro-balanced diet is a great way to support resistance training and optimize hormone levels.
  • Heavy resistance training is one of several ways to increase testosterone naturally for men.

I’ll get into the science behind these points in the article below.

Why Do Some Experts Say Protein Lowers Testosterone?

The experts who claim that high protein intake lowers testosterone are basing their conclusions on a study that looked at low-carb diets and men’s cortisol and testosterone, and not specifically high-protein diets. The combination of a low-carb diet and very high protein intake resulted in lower testosterone.

When it comes to making claims about protein and testosterone (or any subject that has been studied), we can’t take any one study out of context without considering the entire body of evidence. 

That is why I will go over multiple studies to give you the best, most comprehensive information on overall protein intake, protein supplementation, and resistance training and how they all tie together when it comes to testosterone.

Current Research on Protein & Testosterone

Study 1: Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Men’s Cortisol and Testosterone: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

This is the study that raised alarm bells with its conclusion that “high-protein diets cause a large decrease in resting total testosterone.” 

Low-Carb Diets vs. High-Protein Diets

Notice that the study title is actually about low-carb diets and not high-protein diets.

The authors note that cortisol (the stress hormone that is released when demands such as an intense workout are placed on your mind and body) has an inverse relationship with testosterone so that when cortisol is increased, testosterone is decreased.

Any dietary or training changes that lead to increased cortisol could potentially decrease testosterone. Low-carb diets result in much higher cortisol after long-duration exercise.

Emphasis on Relative Intake vs. Absolute Intake

The authors’ definition of “high” or “low” for any macronutrient was based on relative terms as a percentage of total calorie intake rather than an absolute number of grams.

By their definition, an extremely low-carb diet would have to mean either a high-fat or high-protein diet (or both).

The average calorie intake in the study was ~2,870 calories per day, with the low-carb diet having only 12% (344 calories or 86g) coming from carbs. 

“High protein” was defined as more than 35% of calories from protein, or at least 1,005 calories (251g). Dietary intake of up to 35% of calories from protein was considered “moderate protein.” 

The average study participant was 173 lbs, so the minimum high protein intake of 251g would be ~1.5g per pound of body weight (3.2g per kg of body weight). 

Assuming a participant limits fat intake to 35% of total calories and carbs to 12%, protein intake would then be 53%, or 1,520 calories (380g), which is ~2.2g per pound of body weight (4.8g per kg of body weight). This is absurdly high and far beyond what we recommend in our macronutrient breakdowns since protein is the least efficient way for the body to get energy.

A macronutrient ratio that is a majority protein would put a large strain on the body in terms of energy production. This would lead to higher cortisol and lower testosterone. 

Notably, moderate protein diets did not have an impact on testosterone levels. 

Overall, the study points to a link between low-carb diets and high cortisol levels, with the effect that higher cortisol has a negative impact on testosterone. Dietary intake of up to 35% protein (1.5g per pound of body weight) had no impact on testosterone levels.

  • Related Article: 50-30-20 Macros: What Is It, How It Works, & Sample Meals

Study 2: Effect of Protein Intake on Strength, Body Composition and Endocrine Changes in Strength/Power Athletes

In this study, college strength & power athletes ate one of the following diets:

  • Low protein: 1-1.4 g of protein per kg of body weight (0.5 – 0.6g per pound)
  • Average protein: 1.6 – 1.8 g protein per kg of body weight (0.7 – 0.8g per pound)
  • High protein: >2g per kg of body weight (more than 0.9g per pound of body weight)

All three diets had a similar total calorie intake.

After 12 weeks in a resistance training program, there were no significant differences between groups for muscle mass, fat mass, or resting hormonal concentrations, meaning that a high-protein diet did not increase or decrease testosterone.

Study 3: Impact of Resisted Exercises and Whey Protein on Growth Hormones and Testosterone in Normal Subjects

This study looked specifically at supplementation with whey protein powder.

Participants in a six-week resistance training program either had a post-workout shake with 1.2g of whey protein per kg of body weight or no shake. 

Testosterone, growth hormone, and 1RM measurements increased for both groups but showed no significant differences between the groups for testosterone. The whey protein group had significantly higher growth hormone and improvements in 1 rep max measurements.

Study 4: Testosterone Physiology in Resistance Exercise and Training: the up-stream regulatory elements

While this study does not explicitly mention protein intake, it does point out that testosterone stimulates protein synthesis, and our bodies can only make protein if they have the necessary building blocks in the form of amino acids coming from protein in the diet.

The study also noted that men’s testosterone concentration is increased directly after a heavy resistance training session. 

Study 5: Testosterone and Cortisol in Relationship to Dietary Nutrients and Resistance Exercise

This study dates back to 1997, and it looked at the relationship between macronutrient intake and resting and post-exercise levels of testosterone and cortisol. Sound familiar?

The study noted significant increases in testosterone after high-intensity resistance exercise, similar to Study 4. 

It also referenced an earlier study from 1987, which showed that replacing dietary carbohydrates with protein decreases testosterone.

This is when “high-protein” is described in relative terms and is achieved by reducing carbohydrate intake to “low-carb” – a key point that was glossed over in the headlines from the recent study making waves.

The study reaches the same conclusion as the meta-analysis (Study 1), which is that when protein replaces carbs to create a low-carb diet, testosterone decreases. But, the study went even further and pointed out that low-fat diets (20% of total intake) are also linked to lower testosterone.

Conclusions From These Studies

  • Dietary intake of up to 35% protein (1.5g per pound of body weight) has no impact on testosterone levels. Very low-carb diets are more likely to result in lower testosterone than high-protein diets.
  • High-protein diets and protein supplements do not increase or decrease testosterone levels, but they do improve muscle growth and strength.
  • Heavy resistance training increases testosterone concentrations in men.

Does Eating a Certain Amount of Protein Per Day Increase Testosterone?

No, eating a certain amount of protein per day does not increase testosterone.

However, intake levels of dietary protein below the minimum recommended amount (0.4 grams per pound of body weight) would not be enough to help the body with hormone production. So, it’s possible that not eating enough protein can decrease testosterone levels.

Supplementation with protein above and beyond the minimum requirement is not shown to increase testosterone levels, although it can help with muscle mass and strength gains

Other Ways To Naturally Increase Your Testosterone

Other ways to naturally increase your testosterone

Beyond maintaining an appropriate protein intake (neither too high nor too low, e.g., 0.5-1.5g per pound of body weight or roughly 10-35% of total calories), there are many other ways to naturally increase your testosterone.

Keep in mind the inverse relationship between the stress hormone cortisol and testosterone. Actions that help to reduce stress can thereby help to increase testosterone.

1. Eat an Overall Balanced Diet With an Emphasis on Minimally Processed Whole Foods

A balanced diet with lean meats, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds will naturally provide you with a balanced mix of macro- and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) to support your overall health, which supports your hormonal health.

2. Maintain a Healthy Body Fat Percentage

Obese men are much more likely to have low testosterone levels. Excess belly fat, in particular, is linked to lower testosterone. A healthy body fat percentage to aim for is around 10-20% for men.

If you need help with your weight loss goals, our team of registered dietitians and nutrition coaches are excited to help you.

3. Get Enough Sleep

The majority of daily testosterone is released during sleep.

Studies have shown that chronic sleep restriction results in lower testosterone levels. Make sleep a priority with a consistent bedtime routine and schedule, and aim for at least 7-8 hours each night.

4. Exercise Regularly

As we saw, there is a strong positive link between exercise, especially heavy resistance training, and testosterone levels. Aim to include resistance training sessions at least three times per week. 

Don’t overdo it with intensity or volume, though, as extremely hard and/or long training sessions are very stressful. That increase in cortisol will lead to lower testosterone.

5. Reduce Stress

Given the inverse relationship between cortisol and testosterone, it makes sense that anything that helps to reduce stress can improve testosterone. Stress isn’t just from physical demands; psychological stress also decreases testosterone.

Consider meditation, journaling, or even just spending time with loved ones as ways to reduce stress.

6. Take Supplements

Supplementing with vitamin D, especially if you live in a place that doesn’t have a sunny climate, can help to increase total testosterone levels.

If you’re lucky enough to live in a sunny place, a walk outside for even just 15 minutes can improve vitamin D levels. You also get the benefits of exercise and stress reduction all in one.

Magnesium supplementation also increases testosterone levels, and the impacts are even greater for individuals who exercise regularly.

7. Review Your Medications

Some prescription medications can decrease testosterone (most notably statins). If you are concerned about this, discuss it with your doctor or pharmacist.

8. Avoid Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Alcohol and drug abuse have negative impacts on the entire male reproductive system, including testosterone.

Eliminate or reduce alcohol intake to no more than 3-5 standard drinks per week, and avoid drugs other than prescription medications you have reviewed with your primary health care provider.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is There Testosterone In Whey Protein?

No, there is no testosterone in whey protein. But combining heavy resistance training with a diet that includes sufficient dietary protein intake (0.7-1g of protein per pound of body weight) from whey protein powder and whole foods can lead to increases in testosterone, especially for men.

Additional Protein Resources


Whittaker J, Harris M. Low-carbohydrate diets and men’s cortisol and testosterone: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition and Health. 2022;28(4):543-554. doi:10.1177/02601060221083079

Fromentin, C., Tomé, D., Nau, F., Flet, L., Luengo, C., Azzout-Marniche, D., Sanders, P., Fromentin, G., & Gaudichon, C. (2013). Dietary proteins contribute little to glucose production, even under optimal gluconeogenic conditions in healthy humans. Diabetes, 62(5), 1435–1442.

Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., Falvo, M. J., & Faigenbaum, A. D. (2006). Effect of protein intake on strength, body composition and endocrine changes in strength/power athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 3(2), 12–18.

Rushdy, D. S., Kamel, R. M., Nasef, S. A. S., Elsayed, S. E. B., & Goda, H. M. (2018). Impact of Resisted Exercises and Whey Protein on Growth Hormones and Testosterone in Normal Subjects. Journal of Medical Sciences, 18, 27-33.

Vingren JL, Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA, Anderson JM, Volek JS, Maresh CM. Testosterone physiology in resistance exercise and training: the up-stream regulatory elements. Sports Med. 2010 Dec 1;40(12):1037-53. doi: 10.2165/11536910-000000000-00000. PMID: 21058750.

Volek, J. S., Kraemer, W. J., Bush, J. A., Incledon, T., & Boetes, M. (1997, January 01). Testosterone and cortisol in relationship to dietary nutrients and resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82(1), 49-54.

Anderson, K. E., Rosner, W., Khan, M. S., New, M. I., Pang, S., Wissel, P. S., & Kappas, A. (1987). Diet-hormone interactions: Protein/carbohydrate ratio alters reciprocally the plasma levels of testosterone and cortisol and their respective binding globulins in man. Life Sciences, 40(18), 1761-1768.

Cohen, P. G. (2001). Aromatase, adiposity, aging and disease. The hypogonadal-metabolic-atherogenic-disease and aging connection. Medical Hypotheses, 56(6), 702-708.

Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Effect of 1 Week of Sleep Restriction on Testosterone Levels in Young Healthy Men. JAMA. 2011;305(21):2173–2174. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.710

Afrisham, R., Sadegh-Nejadi, S., SoliemaniFar, O., Kooti, W., Ashtary-Larky, D., Alamiri, F., Aberomand, M., Najjar-Asl, S., & Khaneh-Keshi, A. (2016). Salivary Testosterone Levels Under Psychological Stress and Its Relationship with Rumination and Five Personality Traits in Medical Students. Psychiatry investigation, 13(6), 637–643.

Pilz S, Frisch S, Koertke H, Kuhn J, Dreier J, Obermayer-Pietsch B, Wehr E, Zittermann A. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Horm Metab Res. 2011 Mar;43(3):223-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1269854. Epub 2010 Dec 10. PMID: 21154195.

Cinar, V., Polat, Y., Baltaci, A.K. et al. Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Testosterone Levels of Athletes and Sedentary Subjects at Rest and after Exhaustion. Biol Trace Elem Res 140, 18–23 (2011).

Schooling CM, Au Yeung SL, Freeman G, Cowling BJ. The effect of statins on testosterone in men and women, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Med. 2013 Feb 28;11:57. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-57. PMID: 23448151; PMCID: PMC3621815.

About The Author

Lauren Graham

Lauren Graham is a Precision Nutrition Level 1 certified nutrition coach. She focuses on helping busy professionals balance healthy eating and purposeful movement.  Lauren has a background in competitive swimming and is currently competing as a CrossFit athlete.  She has a passion for training, teaching, and writing. 

Why Trust Our Content

FeastGood logo

On Staff at, we have Registered Dietitians, coaches with PhDs in Human Nutrition, and internationally ranked athletes who contribute to our editorial process. This includes research, writing, editing, fact-checking, and product testing/reviews. At a bare minimum, all authors must be certified nutrition coaches by either the National Academy of Sports Medicine, International Sport Sciences Association, or Precision Nutrition. Learn more about our team here.

Have a Question?

If you have any questions or feedback about what you’ve read, you can reach out to us at We respond to every email within 1 business day.

Transparent Labs

Here’s My #1 Ranked Whey Protein

After trying 20+ whey protein powders, Transparent Labs is my #1 Pick. Here’s why:

  • 93% protein percent of calories (highest on the market)
  • Completely transparent labels, no additives, sugar, or artificial flavors
  • Taste and texture ranked the highest out of the blind taste test

After trying 20+ whey protein powders, here’s why Transparent Labs is my top pick:

  • Highest protein percent of calories
  • No additives, sugar, or artificial flavors
  • Taste and texture ranked the best

Read my review